CAUSES OF BACK PAIN
Lower back is a complex structure .Associated structures are -bones, ligaments, nerves, nerve roots, tendons, spinal cord. Minor back pains can be a strain or a sprain, injury, nerve root irritation etc. There are many causes of back pain, few of them are discussed below:
1. Degenerative and Herniated disc-Between the vertebrae disc is present. When disc gets degenerated or due to any external pressure or injury ,it gets bulged or herniated, it causes pain .Sometimes when a nerve gets compressed the pain travels through buttocks and the back of leg which is also known as sciatica.
2. Spondylolysthesis -When a vertebrae slips either forward or backward it is known as spondylolysthesis .Any injury or trauma, infection, arthritis, congenital defect or stress fracture can lead to spondylolysthesis .Pain in thighs ,groin, hip, back .In many cases the pain relieves with the change in position.
3. Mechanical pain- back pain caused by abnormal stress or strain on the back muscles due to faulty posture while sitting ,bending forward or backward, pushing or pulling something etc.
4. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction- hypermobile or hypomobile sacroiliac joint can cause SI Joint dysfunction . Pain in lower back or leg or it can be similar to sciatica pain.
5. Spinal Stenosis – narrowing of spinal canal .It can be due to degenerative arthritis and formation of bone spurs. Lumbar stenosis imitates the symptoms of vascular insufficiency .Pain in legs while walking and relieved by rest is associated with stenosis of lumbar spine. This is known as claudication.
6. Tight muscles-Tight and short muscles especially hip flexors, adductors, hamstrings and quadriceps can cause back pain .It fixes the pelvis and pressure is exerted on lower back which causes pain.
Nowadays, back pain is more common due the change in lifestyle, faulty postures and lack of exercise.